Water is essential to life. Although 97.5 of world's volume is water, only 0.2% of it is fresh water. Other pertenctage is mostly saline water in ocean and seas.

Water security is an import aspect to the entire world. Studies show that xxxx per person is xxxx. Global population explotion is xxxx. 

Egypt is not in an isolation of the world, and recently, the threat imposed by dams to be build on the Nile river increases this risk. 

However, Egypt is fortunate to be located between the Mideratina and the red sea. Two rich sources of saline water. Thus, desalination of sea water is a key solution to Egypt's water problem, and also to the entire world.

Desalination is a non-spontenous process where a mixture of fresh water and salt needs to be separated. This requires external energy to be applied. Several desalination technologies exist including:         .

Electrochemical methods for water desalination, e.g. electrodialisis, capacitve deionization, etc, emerges as promising technologies that consumes less energy compared to well-estabilished technologies like: RO. 

Yet, many challenges remain to be solved including: the increase of water recovery ratios, long cycle life, etc. 

My present research interest is focused on improving the performance of such electrochemical cells. Approaches include experimental research, the development of thermodynamic and transport models, on the continuum level, and the use of atomistic simulations for understanding the behavior/design of the electrodes.